Air conditioning, commonly abbreviated as A/C or AC, is a crucial technology that provides thermal comfort by removing heat and controlling humidity within an enclosed space. This process can be achieved through various methods, including mechanical air conditioners, passive cooling, and ventilative cooling techniques. Air conditioning is an essential component of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, which collectively maintain a comfortable indoor environment. The widespread use of air conditioning has significantly impacted modern architecture and building design, allowing for the creation of deep plan buildings and enabling people to inhabit hotter regions comfortably. However, the increasing demand for air conditioning has raised concerns about energy consumption and environmental impact, prompting the development of sustainable and alternative cooling technologies (International Energy Agency, 2018; United Nations, n.d.).

Types of Air Conditioning Systems

There are various types of air conditioning systems available, each designed to cater to specific needs and preferences. Central air conditioning systems, for instance, are ideal for cooling large spaces and consist of an outdoor unit, indoor unit, and ductwork to distribute cooled air throughout the building. Split systems, on the other hand, are suitable for individual rooms and comprise an outdoor compressor and an indoor air handler. These systems can be further classified into mini-split (ductless) and multi-split systems, which allow for independent temperature control in multiple rooms.

Another type of air conditioning system is the window unit, which is a compact, self-contained system designed for single-room cooling. Portable air conditioners are similar in function but can be easily moved from one room to another. Evaporative coolers, also known as swamp coolers, use the natural process of evaporation to cool the air and are particularly effective in dry climates. Lastly, geothermal systems utilise the stable temperature of the earth to provide both heating and cooling, making them an energy-efficient and environmentally friendly option.

Components and Functioning of Air Conditioners

Air conditioners function by utilising a vapour-compression refrigeration cycle to remove heat and humidity from an enclosed space, thereby creating a more comfortable environment. The primary components of an air conditioning system include the compressor, condenser, evaporator, and expansion valve. The compressor pressurises the refrigerant, a substance with a high heat absorption capacity, converting it into a high-pressure, high-temperature gas. This gas then flows to the condenser, where it releases heat to the surrounding environment, causing the refrigerant to condense into a high-pressure liquid. The liquid refrigerant then passes through the expansion valve, which reduces its pressure and temperature, before entering the evaporator. In the evaporator, the refrigerant absorbs heat from the indoor air, causing it to evaporate and cool the air in the process. The cooled air is then circulated throughout the space, while the low-pressure refrigerant gas returns to the compressor to repeat the cycle (ASHRAE, 2017; U.S. Department of Energy, n.d.).


Passive Cooling and Ventilative Cooling Techniques

Passive cooling and ventilative cooling techniques are sustainable alternatives to conventional air conditioning systems, aiming to reduce energy consumption and environmental impact. Passive cooling refers to the use of building design and materials to maintain comfortable indoor temperatures without relying on mechanical systems. This can be achieved through various methods, such as proper building orientation, shading devices, thermal mass, and natural ventilation. Ventilative cooling, on the other hand, focuses on the strategic use of natural airflow to remove excess heat from a building. This can be accomplished through techniques like cross ventilation, stack effect, and windcatchers. Both passive and ventilative cooling approaches have been used in traditional architecture for centuries and are now being revived and adapted for modern building designs to promote energy efficiency and sustainability (Kleerekoper, van Esch, & Salcedo, 2012; Santamouris, 2014).


  • Kleerekoper, L., van Esch, M., & Salcedo, T. B. (2012). How to make a city climate-proof, addressing the urban heat island effect. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 64, 30-38.
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Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning

Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems are an integral part of modern building design, providing thermal comfort and acceptable indoor air quality for occupants. These systems regulate temperature, humidity, and air circulation within a building, ensuring a comfortable and healthy environment. HVAC systems typically consist of a heating component, such as a furnace or boiler, a cooling component, like an air conditioner or heat pump, and a ventilation component, which can be either mechanical or natural. The heating and cooling components work together to maintain the desired indoor temperature, while the ventilation component helps to remove pollutants, odours, and excess moisture from the indoor air. HVAC systems can be designed to be energy-efficient and environmentally friendly, incorporating sustainable technologies such as solar panels, geothermal heat pumps, and energy recovery ventilators. Proper design, installation, and maintenance of HVAC systems are crucial for their optimal performance and longevity, as well as for the well-being of building occupants (ASHRAE, 2017; U.S. Department of Energy, 2020).


  • ASHRAE. (2017). ASHRAE Handbook: Fundamentals. Atlanta, GA: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers.

Heat Pumps and Air Source Heat Pumps

Heat pumps and air source heat pumps are energy-efficient systems that provide both heating and cooling for enclosed spaces. Heat pumps work by transferring heat from one location to another, utilising the principles of vapour-compression refrigeration. In heating mode, they extract heat from the outside air or ground and transfer it indoors, while in cooling mode, they remove heat from the indoor air and release it outdoors. Air source heat pumps, a specific type of heat pump, rely solely on the outside air as their heat source or sink. These systems have gained popularity in recent years, particularly in cooler climates, due to their ability to provide efficient heating and cooling with reduced environmental impact compared to traditional HVAC systems (International Energy Agency, 2018). As the demand for sustainable and alternative cooling technologies grows, heat pumps and air source heat pumps are expected to play a significant role in the future of air conditioning and building design (United Nations, n.d.).


Energy Consumption and Environmental Impact

The energy consumption of air conditioning systems is a significant concern, as they account for approximately 20% of global electricity usage in buildings (International Energy Agency, 2018). This high energy demand contributes to increased greenhouse gas emissions and exacerbates climate change. Moreover, the refrigerants used in air conditioning systems, such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), have been found to cause damage to the ozone layer, while hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) contribute to global warming (United Nations, n.d.). The release of these refrigerants into the atmosphere, often during repairs, poses a significant environmental threat. To address these issues, the use of alternative cooling technologies, such as passive cooling, evaporative cooling, and better thermal insulation, has been encouraged. Additionally, the adoption of hydrofluoroolefin (HFO) refrigerants, which have a lower global warming potential and zero ozone depletion potential, is becoming more prevalent in new equipment


Sustainable and Alternative Cooling Technologies

Sustainable and alternative cooling technologies have gained prominence in recent years due to the growing concerns over energy consumption and environmental impact of conventional air conditioning systems. One such technology is passive cooling, which utilises building design and materials to maintain comfortable indoor temperatures without the need for mechanical systems. This can be achieved through techniques such as natural ventilation, shading, and thermal mass. Another alternative is evaporative cooling, which relies on the natural process of water evaporation to cool the air, consuming significantly less energy compared to traditional air conditioning systems.

Selective shading, a technique that involves strategically placing shades or blinds to block direct sunlight, can also help reduce indoor temperatures and energy consumption. Windcatchers, an ancient architectural feature, can be integrated into modern buildings to promote natural ventilation and cooling. Furthermore, improving thermal insulation in buildings can reduce the need for air conditioning by minimising heat transfer between the indoor and outdoor environments. As the demand for energy-efficient and environmentally friendly cooling solutions continues to grow, it is expected that more innovative and sustainable technologies will emerge in the future (IEA, 2018; United Nations, 2019).

History of Air Conditioning and Passive Techniques

The history of air conditioning can be traced back to ancient civilizations, where passive cooling techniques were employed to maintain comfortable indoor environments. Ancient Egyptians, for instance, utilised passive air-conditioning methods in their architectural designs, which later spread across the Iberian Peninsula, North Africa, the Middle East, and Northern India [8][9]. These passive techniques remained popular until the 20th century when powered air conditioning systems began to dominate the market. However, recent engineering studies of traditional buildings have led to a resurgence of interest in passive cooling methods, which are now being adapted and integrated into modern architectural designs [10][9].

The development of modern air conditioning systems began in the 19th century with the invention of mechanical refrigeration. In 1902, Willis Carrier invented the first electrical air conditioning unit, which laid the foundation for the contemporary air conditioning industry. Over the years, advancements in technology have led to the creation of more efficient and environmentally friendly air conditioning systems, including the use of alternative refrigerants and the incorporation of energy-saving features. As the demand for sustainable cooling solutions continues to grow, the integration of passive cooling techniques and innovative technologies in air conditioning systems is expected to play a significant role in shaping the future of the industry [11].

Development and Preceding Discoveries

The development of modern air conditioning systems can be traced back to several key discoveries and innovations. In 1558, Giambattista della Porta described a method of chilling ice to temperatures far below its freezing point by mixing it with potassium nitrate in his book Natural Magic (Porta, 1558). Later, in 1620, Cornelis Drebbel demonstrated “Turning Summer into Winter” for James I of England by chilling part of the Great Hall of Westminster Abbey using an apparatus of troughs and vats (Bacon, 1620). In 1758, Benjamin Franklin and John Hadley conducted an experiment to explore the principle of evaporation as a means to rapidly cool an object, confirming that the evaporation of highly volatile liquids could be used to drive down the temperature of an object past the freezing point of water (Franklin & Hadley, 1758). These early discoveries laid the foundation for the development of modern air conditioning systems, which have since evolved to incorporate advanced technologies and materials, enabling more efficient and sustainable cooling solutions for a wide range of applications.


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Air Conditioning in Modern Architecture and Building Design

Air conditioning systems have become an integral part of modern architecture and building design, as they significantly contribute to the overall comfort and energy efficiency of a structure. Architects and engineers collaborate to incorporate air conditioning systems into the design process, taking into consideration factors such as building orientation, insulation, window placement, and shading devices to optimise natural ventilation and reduce the reliance on mechanical cooling systems. Additionally, the use of advanced technologies, such as Building Information modelling (BIM), allows for the simulation and analysis of various air conditioning configurations to achieve the most efficient and sustainable solutions.

In recent years, there has been a growing emphasis on integrating passive cooling and ventilative cooling techniques into building designs to minimise energy consumption and environmental impact. These strategies include the use of thermal mass, natural ventilation, and shading devices to regulate indoor temperatures without the need for mechanical air conditioning systems. Furthermore, the adoption of energy-efficient HVAC systems, such as air source heat pumps, and the implementation of sustainable and alternative cooling technologies, are becoming increasingly prevalent in modern building designs to address the global concerns of energy consumption and climate change (IEA, 2018; United Nations, n.d.).


Future Trends and Innovations in Air Conditioning

Future trends and innovations in air conditioning are primarily focused on enhancing energy efficiency and reducing environmental impact. One such innovation is the development of solar-powered air conditioning systems, which harness solar energy to power the cooling process, significantly reducing electricity consumption and greenhouse gas emissions (Li et al., 2017). Additionally, the use of phase change materials (PCMs) in building design is gaining traction, as these materials can store and release thermal energy, thereby reducing the reliance on mechanical air conditioning systems (Kuznik et al., 2011). Furthermore, advancements in sensor technology and the integration of artificial intelligence (AI) in HVAC systems are expected to optimise energy consumption and improve indoor air quality (Shaikh et al., 2016). Lastly, the adoption of alternative refrigerants with lower global warming potential (GWP) and zero ozone depletion potential (ODP) is anticipated to mitigate the environmental impact of air conditioning systems (Zhang et al., 2017).


  • Li, D., Sun, Y., & Liu, Y. (2017). A review of solar-powered air conditioning systems. Energy Procedia, 105, 1-6.
  • Kuznik, F., Virgone, J., & Johannes, K. (2011). Development and validation of a new TRNSYS type for the simulation of external building walls containing PCM. Applied Energy, 88(5), 1787-1794.
  • Shaikh, P. H., Nor, N. B. M., Nallagownden, P., Elamvazuthi, I., & Ibrahim, T. (2016). A review on optimised control systems for building energy and comfort management of smart sustainable buildings. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 56, 1047-1067.
  • Zhang, M., Zhang, Y., & Radermacher, R. (2017). A review of alternative refrigerants for air conditioning applications. International Journal of Refrigeration, 75, 125-139.
Category: Features