Introduction to Disclosure

It involves the communication of relevant information to stakeholders, such as investors, regulators, and the public, enabling informed decision-making and fostering trust in the market. The legal framework and regulations surrounding disclosure vary across jurisdictions, with international standards and practices aiming to harmonize these requirements. However, challenges and controversies persist in the realm of disclosure, particularly in areas such as technology and data privacy, where rapid advancements often outpace regulatory developments. As the global economy continues to evolve, the importance of effective disclosure practices cannot be overstated, with future trends and developments likely to shape the way businesses and organizations communicate critical information to their stakeholders (Higgins, 2022; Spot Blue, n.d.).


Types of Disclosure

Disclosure, a crucial aspect of various industries, can be categorized into several types. One common type is financial disclosure, which involves the release of financial information by companies to their investors, regulators, and the public. This information typically includes financial statements, annual reports, and other relevant financial data that helps stakeholders make informed decisions. Another type is real estate disclosure, where property sellers are required to disclose specific information about the property’s condition, history, and potential issues to potential buyers.

Corporate disclosure and transparency encompass the release of information related to a company’s governance, operations, and performance, promoting accountability and trust among stakeholders. Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) disclosures focus on a company’s impact on the environment, society, and its governance practices, which are increasingly important for investors and regulators. In the healthcare and pharmaceutical industries, disclosure requirements include information about clinical trials, drug safety, and potential conflicts of interest. Lastly, technology and data privacy disclosures involve the sharing of information about data collection, usage, and protection practices, ensuring compliance with data protection regulations and maintaining consumer trust.


  • (Chapple, E., & Moon, J. (2005). Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in Asia: A Seven-Country Study of CSR Web Site Reporting. Business & Society, 44(4), 415-441. doi:10.1177/0007650305281658)

Legal Framework and Regulations

The legal framework and regulations surrounding disclosure encompass a complex network of laws, guidelines, and standards that vary across industries and jurisdictions. These regulations are designed to promote transparency, accountability, and trust in various sectors, such as financial services, real estate, corporate governance, healthcare, and technology. Key regulatory bodies, such as the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) in the United States and the Financial Conduct Authority (FCA) in the United Kingdom, enforce disclosure requirements to protect investors, consumers, and other stakeholders. Additionally, international disclosure standards, such as the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI), provide guidelines for organizations to disclose financial and non-financial information in a consistent and comparable manner. Despite the extensive legal framework, challenges persist in ensuring adequate disclosure, as regulations evolve to address emerging issues, such as data privacy, environmental, social, and governance (ESG) factors, and cross-border transactions (Fieseler et al., 2018; Higgins, 2022).


  • Fieseler, C., Lutz, C., & Meckel, M. (2018). A configuration of sustainable corporate transparency. Business & Society, 57(7), 1302-1335.

Disclosure in Financial Services

Disclosure plays a crucial role in the financial services industry, as it ensures transparency, accountability, and trust between various stakeholders, including investors, regulators, and customers. Financial institutions are required to disclose relevant information about their operations, financial performance, and risk management practices to enable informed decision-making by investors and regulators. This information is typically disclosed through financial statements, annual reports, and regulatory filings, which are subject to strict accounting and reporting standards, such as the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP).

Moreover, disclosure requirements in the financial services industry extend to areas such as anti-money laundering (AML), know-your-customer (KYC) regulations, and data privacy, which aim to prevent financial crimes and protect consumer interests. Financial institutions must adhere to these regulations and disclose relevant information to regulatory authorities, ensuring compliance and mitigating potential risks. In summary, disclosure in the financial services industry is essential for maintaining transparency, fostering trust, and promoting a stable and secure financial system.


  • IFRS Foundation. (n.d.). International Financial Reporting Standards. Retrieved from; Financial Accounting Standards Board. (n.d.). Generally Accepted Accounting Principles. Retrieved from

Real Estate Disclosure Requirements

Real estate disclosure requirements vary depending on the jurisdiction, but generally involve providing potential buyers with essential information about a property before a transaction is completed. This may include disclosing known defects, environmental hazards, and any legal issues affecting the property. In the UK, for example, the Economic Crime (Transparency and Enforcement) Act 2022 has introduced new disclosure rules for overseas owners of UK real estate, aiming to increase transparency and combat money laundering (Higgins, 2022).

In the United States, the Residential Property Disclosure Act requires sellers to complete a disclosure form detailing the property’s condition, including any known defects or issues. Additionally, the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (RESPA) mandates that lenders provide borrowers with a good faith estimate of closing costs and a HUD-1 settlement statement detailing the final costs (Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, n.d.). These regulations ensure that buyers are well-informed about the property they are purchasing and can make informed decisions.


Corporate Disclosure and Transparency

Corporate disclosure and transparency play a crucial role in promoting accountability and trust among stakeholders, including investors, employees, customers, and regulators. By providing accurate, timely, and comprehensive information about a company’s financial performance, governance practices, and environmental, social, and governance (ESG) initiatives, stakeholders can make informed decisions and assess the company’s long-term sustainability and value creation potential. Furthermore, transparent disclosure practices help to reduce information asymmetry, mitigate potential conflicts of interest, and enhance market efficiency, ultimately contributing to a more stable and resilient financial system. In addition, adherence to international disclosure standards and practices, such as the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) and the Sustainability Accounting Standards Board (SASB), demonstrates a company’s commitment to responsible business conduct and fosters a culture of ethical behavior and corporate citizenship. In summary, corporate disclosure and transparency are essential for fostering trust, promoting accountability, and ensuring the long-term success of businesses in an increasingly complex and interconnected global economy.


  • (Source: GRI, 2021; SASB, 2021)

Environmental, Social, and Governance

Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) disclosures refer to the reporting of non-financial information by companies, which encompasses their environmental impact, social responsibility, and corporate governance practices. These disclosures have gained significant importance in recent years, as investors, regulators, and other stakeholders increasingly recognize the need for businesses to address global challenges such as climate change, social inequality, and ethical governance.

ESG disclosures enable companies to demonstrate their commitment to sustainable and responsible business practices, which can enhance their reputation, attract investment, and mitigate potential risks. Moreover, these disclosures can facilitate better decision-making by providing stakeholders with a comprehensive understanding of a company’s performance, beyond traditional financial metrics. As a result, ESG disclosures have become a crucial aspect of corporate transparency and accountability, with various international standards and frameworks, such as the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) and the Sustainability Accounting Standards Board (SASB), guiding companies in their reporting efforts (Global Reporting Initiative, n.d.; Sustainability Accounting Standards Board, n.d.).


Disclosure in Healthcare and Pharmaceuticals

Disclosure plays a crucial role in the healthcare and pharmaceutical industries, ensuring transparency, accountability, and informed decision-making. It encompasses the communication of vital information, such as clinical trial data, drug safety and efficacy, pricing, and potential conflicts of interest. This information is essential for healthcare professionals, patients, regulators, and investors to make informed choices and assess risks associated with medical treatments and pharmaceutical products.

Mandatory disclosure requirements, such as those imposed by regulatory bodies like the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMA), ensure that pharmaceutical companies provide accurate and timely information about their products. This enables healthcare professionals to prescribe medications based on the best available evidence, and patients to understand the potential benefits and risks of their treatments. Furthermore, disclosure in the healthcare and pharmaceutical industries promotes ethical practices, fosters trust among stakeholders, and contributes to the overall advancement of medical knowledge and innovation.


  • (US Food and Drug Administration, n.d.; European Medicines Agency, n.d.)

Disclosure in Technology and Data Privacy

The role of disclosure in technology and data privacy is crucial in maintaining trust and transparency between businesses, consumers, and regulators. As technology continues to advance, the collection, storage, and processing of personal data have become increasingly complex. Consequently, disclosure requirements have been established to ensure that organizations are transparent about their data handling practices, thereby empowering individuals to make informed decisions about their privacy.

One prominent example of such disclosure requirements is the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), which mandates that organizations provide clear and concise information about their data processing activities, including the purpose, legal basis, and retention period for personal data (European Commission, 2021). Similarly, the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA) requires businesses to disclose their data collection practices and provide consumers with the right to access, delete, and opt-out of the sale of their personal information (California Department of Justice, 2020). These regulations, among others, highlight the growing importance of disclosure in technology and data privacy, as it fosters accountability, compliance, and consumer trust in an increasingly data-driven world.


International Disclosure Standards and Practices

International disclosure standards and practices vary across industries, reflecting the diverse nature of information requirements and regulatory frameworks. In the financial services sector, the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) provide a globally recognized set of accounting principles, ensuring consistency and comparability in financial reporting (IFRS Foundation, n.d.). Real estate disclosure requirements differ by jurisdiction, but generally involve disclosing material facts about a property’s condition and history to potential buyers (RICS, 2020). Corporate disclosure and transparency are guided by principles such as the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises, which promote responsible business conduct and information sharing (OECD, 2021).

Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) disclosures are increasingly important, with the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) and the Sustainability Accounting Standards Board (SASB) providing widely accepted frameworks for reporting on sustainability performance (GRI, n.d.; SASB, n.d.). In healthcare and pharmaceuticals, disclosure practices are governed by regulations such as the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) and the US Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), which protect patient privacy and data security (European Commission, 2018; HHS, n.d.). Technology and data privacy disclosures are also subject to international standards, such as the ISO/IEC 27001 for information security management (ISO, n.d.). These diverse standards and practices reflect the complex landscape of disclosure requirements across industries and jurisdictions.


Challenges and Controversies in Disclosure

Challenges and controversies associated with disclosure in various industries often stem from the delicate balance between transparency and confidentiality. In the financial services sector, for instance, disclosing sensitive information may expose firms to competitive disadvantages or even facilitate market manipulation (Financial Stability Board, 2018). Similarly, in the healthcare and pharmaceutical industries, disclosure requirements may conflict with patient privacy rights and intellectual property concerns (World Health Organization, 2018). In the technology and data privacy realm, companies face the challenge of disclosing security breaches and vulnerabilities without compromising user trust or revealing proprietary information (European Commission, 2018). Furthermore, the implementation of international disclosure standards and practices can be hindered by differences in legal frameworks, cultural norms, and enforcement capabilities across jurisdictions (OECD, 2017). As a result, striking the right balance between transparency and confidentiality remains a complex and contentious issue in the realm of disclosure across various industries.


Future Trends and Developments in Disclosure

As we look towards the future, disclosure trends and developments across various industries are expected to evolve in response to emerging challenges and opportunities. One significant trend is the increasing emphasis on Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) disclosures, driven by growing investor and stakeholder demand for transparency in these areas (1). Technological advancements are also expected to play a crucial role in shaping disclosure practices, with the adoption of artificial intelligence (AI) and blockchain technologies potentially streamlining reporting processes and enhancing data accuracy (2).

Moreover, the harmonization of international disclosure standards and practices is anticipated to gain momentum, as global regulatory bodies work towards establishing a common framework for reporting requirements (3). This is particularly relevant in the context of climate-related disclosures, where the need for consistent and comparable information is paramount. Lastly, the ongoing digital transformation across industries is likely to result in increased scrutiny of technology and data privacy disclosures, as organizations grapple with the complexities of managing and protecting sensitive information in an increasingly interconnected world (4).